Libya does not seem to be able to catch a break. The regime of Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown in 2011 as a wave of anti-government protests, dubbed the Arab Spring, spread across the Islamic world in the early 2010s. Prior to 2011, Libyan oil production was around 1.5-1.8 Mb/d. During the civil war that raged in 2011, oil production and exports came to a virtual standstill.
During 2012-2013, production temporarily recovered, but since 2014, continued civil unrest has made Libyan output highly volatile and unpredictable. In recent years, Libya has become the stage of a proxy war between regional powers. Russia, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates are backing general Khalifa Haftar, the military leader whose Libyan National Army controls the oil-rich east and south of the country.
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